Storm threat scales - Fujita and Saffir-Simpson
Fujita reference suggestion...
When a major cyclonic tropical storm is forecast, the Saffir-Simpson scale is presented to the public: catagory 1 storms are slow wind speed and catagory 5 storms are fast wind speed. The Fujita scale is applied to tornado-like smaller wind swirls that are called mesovortices, in the the larger cyclonic storm. The mesovortex can indicate storm turbulance, in addition to inflicting immediate damage. It is suggested by NCEP that the U.S. population may not be capable of, or perhaps cannot see any purpose, including mesovortices in storm preparedness and management, due to "wind complexity".
The cyclone-generated tornado, technically termed mesovortex, that is a common feature in all major tropical cyclonic storms, is not included in storm warnings, except in Japan and perhaps a few other countries.
"Several methods have been developed to rank meteorological events in terms of severity, social impact, or economic impact. The Fujita scale (Fujita 1981) ranks tornadoes based upon wind damage patterns. The Saffir–Simpson scale ranks hurricanes based upon the maximum wind speed (Simpson 1974). [NCEP]" The Fujita scale is directed at overland tornados, not a tropical storm accumulation. Saffir-Simpson does not separate the mesovortex child events from the parent cyclonic event. Perhaps this uncertainty contributes to the reluctance in many jurisdictions charged with public protection, to report and manage public safety in a manner that can address both cyclonic and tornadic events simultaneously. Wind complexity illustrates just one aspect of geosocial bias that threatens human population."
NCEP continues, "Historically, the storms that are deemed the most significant are those that usually achieve the greatest media attention or impact the largest population centers... This subjectivity is compounded by preparedness issues. A winter storm of a given size or intensity usually has greater impact upon the population at lower latitudes than the same storm would at higher latitudes. Further, the observation network is biased toward the densely populated urban corridors and against rural and oceanic areas. Clearly, the ranking of meteorological phenomena within both the media and the meteorological community is subjective. [NCEP]" Geosocial bias towards Temperate Zone climates effects population centers in modern European colony settlement in the Americas, compounding wind complexity.
We see that Japan consistently and correctly isolates and issues mesovortex warnings, including potential strength and location based on storm quadrant. We can distinguish Japan and U.S. as they report on the same storm, simultaneously (typhoon Faxai, 2019). Storm related "mesovortices" are family evening news in Japan, though only significant related damage would result Wiki mention. Faxai's JTWC and local weather stations reported a Cat 2 typhoon, with F1 activity being "common, criss-crossing in the southwest quadrant", when storm was 20 Km from landfall, as Faxai hit the Ina Islands. Mesovertices dropped to F0 strength as Cat 1 typhoon Faxai passed through Tokyo. Faxai mesovertices did not cause any significant damage.
In sharp contrast, United States weather reports to public completely ignore mesovortex activity. In the United States the mesovortex is not mentioned in the various government and commercial public storm analyses (CNN, CIMSS, and so on), both before, during and after severe storm events (hurricane Dorian, 2019).
Global warming will increase the number and severity of cyclonic tropical storms, and increase human storm impact and awareness, which may also encourage a global shift to universal application of Fujita and Saffir Scales, GROUPED SCALES to report severe cyclonic storm events. In future, rather than storm warnings FAXAI Cat5 / DORIAN CAT 5, we would hopefully see global weather reports issue warnings for FAXAI Cat5 F6 / DORIAN CAT5 F5, or simply FAXAI 5-6 and DORIAN 5-5.
Severe Tropical Storms
NCEP: National Centers for Environmental Protection